Monday, 8 May 2017

Documenting the history of York’s asylums

Sarah Griffin, Rare Books Librarian, summarises the resources about the Retreat hospital available in the Library’s collections and Archives.

On Wednesday 10 May, Dr Jane Hamlett from Royal Holloway will be lecturing on Inside the asylum: Material life in lunatic asylums in Victorian and Edwardian England. The history of lunatic asylums is an important one in York and is widely reflected in the collections of the university.

Perspective view of the North front of the Retreat, York.
Watercolour by Peter Atkinson, Borthwick Institute for Archives.
In 2016, Stories of York was published by the university library looking at the narratives found in the collections of the Rare Books, and Archives at the University, and at York Minster Library. One chapter in the book was dedicated to the York Lunatic Asylum scandal and the creation of the Retreat hospital. The chapter was researched and written by Alexandra Medcalf of the Borthwick who also wrote a blog about it.

The Retreat was founded by and for the Society of Friends and opened in 1796 with 12 patients. It attracted attention for the success of pioneering mild methods of treatment of the insane under superintendent George Jepson (1797-1823). In the 20th century the Retreat was known for its willingness to explore new treatments and in pioneering greater professional training for its nurses. The Retreat collection was transferred to the Borthwick Institute for Archives in 2001.

The Rare Books collection at the university looks after the working library of the Retreat founders and staff including William and Samuel Tuke, George Jepson and other medical superintendents. Its strength comes from being one of only a few intact working specialist libraries on insanity. There are around 300 books dating from the 17th to the early 20th century, mostly dealing with psychiatry and mental illness including:
  • Theories of insanity;
  • Institutions;
  • Care of the insane;
  • The brain;
  • Criminal lunacy;
  • Phrenology;
  • Mental hygiene;
  • Mental deficiency; and
  • The controversies at the York Lunatic Asylum.

William Tuke from Samuel Tuke: his life, work
and thoughts
, Tylor C (1900). London: Headley
Other medical collections of interest in the Rare Books include 3000 books from the library of the York Medical Society, and the Milnes Walker Collection which includes books originally collected by provincial medical societies in Wakefield.

A project to digitise the Retreat archives finished at the beginning of this year. More information about the wealth of material now available can be found in #RetreatTweets and a series of posts on the Borthwick blog.

For further information please email Rare Books Librarian

Tuesday, 2 May 2017

A Discovery in the Archives

Emily Bowles is a PhD student and part-time tutor in the Department of English and Related Literature, writing up her thesis on ‘Changing Representation of Charles Dickens, 1857-1939’. You can find her on Twitter: @EmilyBowles_.

Portrait of British Writer Wilkie Collins (1824-1889).
Picture by Elliott and Fry of 55 Baker Street,
taken possibly in 1871. Library of Congress
In 2015 I was lucky enough to go to the Beinecke Library at Yale University to look at the Richard Gimbel Charles Dickens Collection, thanks in part to a Santander International Connections Award. The collection is vast (described by its cataloguer as “probably the largest accumulation anywhere of Dickensian material”), compiled over forty-five years, and the catalogue produced by John B. Podeschi is the length of a Dickens novel itself1. Incidentally, this catalogue isn’t available online and is only available in its (weighty and substantial) book form. The collection is an amazing collection of letters, images, editions; it even houses a lock of Dickens’ hair, with a certificate of authenticity from his sister-in-law Georgina Hogarth. As I was only there for a limited period of time, I engaged
in a frantic process of trying to see as much of this incredible archive as possible. One of the things I looked at was a short manuscript in blessedly clear handwriting – Dickens’ handwriting has given me a lot of difficulties! – that outlined the life of Victorian novelist Wilkie Collins in his own words2.

Collins was a friend of Dickens and also collaborated with him, writing for Dickens’ journals Household Words and All The Year Round. He is perhaps best known as the father of detective fiction – his novel The Moonstone (1868) is considered the first full-length detective novel. My PhD thesis centres on representations of Dickens, in which I explore how Dickens was written about in a variety of forms including biographies, speeches and journalism. I’d done some previous work with Collins so I mentally filed it away to look up later; I’d never heard of a Collins autobiography, but didn’t know enough to identify what I was looking at.

Several months later, I put out a few feelers with people I knew to try to work out what the manuscript actually was. Thanks to the Wilkie Collins Society, I found out that the manuscript I’d looked at and put to the back of my mind was actually presumed lost for more than a hundred years. By a quirk of cataloguing, it was part of the Dickens collection rather than a Collins one: in trying to work out if other writers knew it was there, I discovered biographers of Collins had visited Yale and worked in the Beinecke Library, but hadn’t ‘discovered’ this manuscript – making it, amazingly, both ‘lost’ but also thoroughly catalogued, hidden in not-quite-plain sight.

Dickens at the Blacking Warehouse by Fred
Barnard. Published in The Leisure Hour in 1904.
This is not all that uncommon for manuscripts and autobiographical material in the Victorian period. Dickens had also written a short autobiographical piece, the contents of which were only made public after his death. This autobiographical fragment was used in the Life of Charles Dickens (1872-74) published by his lifelong friend John Forster, and it revealed for the first time Dickens’ difficult childhood and the time he spent working in a boot blacking factory (he writes of the “secret agony of [his] soul” during this time). The manuscript of this account, too, is lost; Forster, quite old and infirm by that time, is known to have cut and pasted extracts from letters into the biography manuscript, and this may be the fate that befell the autobiographical fragment. Or, then again, perhaps it is waiting in an archive to be discovered – that’s the wonderful thing about visiting libraries.

The Collins manuscript itself, only three pages long, was dictated at the breakfast table and sent to an American journalist to provide context for an article he was writing. The journalist, George Makepeace Towle, had copied verbatim some of Collins’ words for his final piece. The content of the manuscript is therefore not ‘new’ in the sense that it doesn’t tell us much about Collins’ life that we didn’t already know from the Towle article (published in Appleton’s Journal of Popular Literature, Science, and Art on 3 September 1870). It does, however, give us back Collins’ own words and expressions, and reveal how he conceived of his early years and education; where he laid the stresses in his own life, and what moments he perceived as formative – at least, the kind of narrative of his life that he wanted to give to a journalist.

So while the ‘discovery’ is not the headline-grabbing revelation that it might have been, it does show how important it is to make thorough use of library catalogues! And it leaves us with the question of how many researchers came and went without asking the archivists, the cataloguer, or the librarians, one (or several) of whom must have known it was there (but perhaps without knowing its significance). I have written about my find for the Wilkie Collins Journal, so you can read more a more thorough explanation of what the manuscript tells us in issue 14, which can be found on the Wilkie Collins Journal website.

Interested in finding out more about Wilkie Collins?  The University of York Library has many primary and secondary resources that will be of interest for teaching or research.

Cover art by Peter Whiteman. J. M. Dent & Sons,
London, 1977 reprint. Photo by John Keogh.
A first port of call is the Literature section on the second floor of the Morrell Library.  Here you will find a vast range of texts written by and criticism on Wilkie Collins.

You can also access a range of electronic resources off campus.  This list of primary and secondary resources is from our Subject Guides page where you can find information of our 19th century collections for English and Related Literatures.

Finally,  we have a copy of The Moonstone in the Milner-White collection.  The Very Revd Eric Milner-White, Dean of York from 1941 until his death in 1963, was a member of the University Promotion Committee, which was responsible for the original planning of the University of York. One of his many interests was book collecting, and his collection of English detective fiction came to the Library after his death.  The Moonstone is widely considered to be the first full length detective novel in the English language including ‘red herrings’, a reconstruction of the crime, false suspects and a final twist in the plot.

1. John B. Podeschi, Dickens and Dickensiana: A Catalogue of the Richard Gimbel Collection in the Yale University Library. New Haven: Yale University Library, 1980. Print. ix.

2. Wilkie Collins, Autobiographical Sketch. MS. Gimbel-Dickens. Beinecke Library, Yale University. H1239.

Tuesday, 25 April 2017

Ella Fitzgerald: First Lady of Song

Matt Wigzell marks the centenary of the Queen of Jazz, and highlights resources both by and about her available from the Library.

Ella Fitzgerald, November 1946, by William P. Gottlieb
From Wikimedia Commons
This month marks the 100th anniversary of the birth of Ella Fitzgerald, the American jazz singer known as the First Lady of Song. She had a prolific and highly successful career, recording over 200 albums and 2,000 songs.

She began her career aged 17 with an appearance at the renowned Apollo Theater in Harlem, New York. Spotted by drummer and bandleader Chick Webb, Ella joined the band as singer, eventually taking over the role as bandleader after Webb's death in 1939. She rose to prominence with the recording of a version of the nursery rhyme "A-Tisket, A-Tasket".

She began a solo career in 1942, and formed a successful partnership with manager and producer Norman Granz. A series of Songbooks, comprising cover versions of other jazz musicians' songs proved tremendously popular, as did her many live performances. One of the most famous of these was the 1960 performance in Berlin, for which Ella received two Grammy Awards, and included an improvised performance of "Mack the Knife", after forgetting the lyrics. A number of other live performances were recorded and released as albums, such as the 1961/62 recordings of Twelve Nights in Hollywood.

The University Library has access to the Jazz Music Library, a large online collection of jazz songs. Many of Ella Fitzgerald's songs can be heard on the platform, including her collaborations with, amongst others, the famous bandleaders Duke Ellington and Count Basie, as well as trumpeter Louis Armstrong.

You can also read about Ella's life and career in her biography by Stuart Nicholson, held in the Music section of the Library.

Tuesday, 18 April 2017

Data resources: What's available at York and beyond?

Martin Phillip, Academic Liaison Librarian, summarises the resources you can access at the University

This post is a summary of a session that was delivered during  That Figures, a week of statistics analysis workshops that were held in February. For information take a look at the event’s programme and presentations.

What’s available at York?

The University of York subscribes to a number of different data resources that you can access via the E-resources Guide. E-resources cover all sorts of different subject areas and includes the UK Data Service which contains socio-economic data and Digimap which provides maps and geospatial data.

In addition to subscription resources we also list a number of high quality free databases on the E-resources guide, one of which (Eurostat) is detailed below.

Numbers © 2010 duncan c (

OECD iLibrary

OECD is short for Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development and, according to their website,  it “exists to promote policies that will improve the economic and social well-being of people around the world”.

OECD began as a European organisation however it is now much more of a worldwide organisation with 35 member states including Australia and the US.

The OECD iLibrary are a statistical agency who publish comparable statistics on a wide number of subjects. They provide datasets from all member states (and others) and are organised into 17 themes on areas such as financial affairs, social expenditure, and further series relating to industry, agriculture, employment, health and more.

The same data is presented in different ways providing choice in how you can access and manipulate it. This includes over 10,000 ebooks with data often presented with commentary and a searchable abstract of data series that indicates origin, start date and periodicity of the data. Data tables can also be constructed according to your own specifications for viewing online, then exported as a spreadsheet to analyse and manipulate further.


Passport (or Passport GMID as it is sometimes referred to) is a market research tool that monitors industry trends and provides strategic analysis, market size and a market share database for all key sectors and products across key countries.

Passport provides unique datasets developed specifically for the industries it is reporting on meaning you are using a tool that isn’t just used in academia. Reports are created by local analysts that look closely at the characteristics of each country. Passport provides access to historic data and forecasts and can compare these trends across countries. Presentations are also offered to explain regional trend comparisons.

Like OECD iLibrary, multiple options are provided when accessing the data. You can browse which allows you to click on an industry heading and you can then explode the heading to reveal further categories in order to access data related to a specific product type. You can also explore dashboards that are visual and interactive to understand high-level trends in industries, economies and consumers.

Passport helps you keep organised and up-to-date with the latest developments if you register with the service which allows you to create alerts and save your research to access at a later date.


Eurostat is the European Commission's official website that provides access to publicly-available socio-economic data regarding EU member states.

Eurostat provides publications including regional yearbooks, manuals and guidelines, statistical working papers, leaflets and other brochures.

Looking for statistics using the tool is pretty straightforward as you can search for a publication by theme including: general and regional; economy and finance; environment and energy and so on. Once you’ve clicked on a collection you then have further choices such as datasets and pocketbooks.

Over the last few years, Eurostat has started producing infographics, such as this one that was published to coincide with International Woman's Day 2017. Infographics can be really helpful to visually understand a topic.


If you have any questions about the data resources we subscribe to or recommend please get in touch at

Thursday, 23 March 2017

The Centenary of the Abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia

David Moon, Anniversary Professor in History, looks back at the career of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia

Nicholas II in custody at a palace outside Petrograd after
his abdication via: Library of Congress Prints

On  15 March 1917 (according to the western calendar) Tsar Nicholas II abdicated from the Russian throne. This brought to an end the Romanov dynasty that had ruled Russia for over three hundred years. The end was sealed in a short document in which Nicholas explained:

"Internal popular disturbances threaten to have a disastrous effect on the future conduct of this persistent war.... We have thought it well to renounce the Throne of the Russian Empire and to lay down the supreme power."

The ‘internal popular disturbances’ were the events now known as the ‘February Revolution’ (according to the calendar then in use in Russia), in the capital city which at the time was called Petrograd (formerly and once again since 1992 St. Petersburg). Strikes by the city’s workers, protests by women over bread shortages, wider discontent among the population escalated into revolution when some army units in Petrograd mutinied and went over the side of the protesters.

Demonstration in Petrograd during the February Revolution
via: State Museum of Political History in Russia 

The situation was especially serious since Russia was fighting, and losing, ‘this persistent war’ with Germany on the Eastern Front of the First World War. Since 1915, Nicholas had been the Commander-in-Chief of Russia’s armed forces and thus the continuing defeats reflected on him personally. Nicholas was persuaded to abdicate by the army high command, conservative members of the Duma (parliament), as well as some of his own relatives. They thought that if they removed the tsar, who had become unpopular among large sections of the population, they could put down the revolution on the streets of the capital and then focus their efforts on fighting the war.

They were proved badly wrong. Several months uncertainty followed under a ‘provisional’ government, which lacked the authority and power to address the serious problems facing Russia, and culminated in the seizure of power by the extreme left-wing Bolsheviks under Lenin in October 1917. This ushered in 74 years of Communist rule in what became the Soviet Union.

Historians have long debated the causes of the two revolutions in Russia in 1917. Were they the consequence largely of the crisis created by the First World War? Or were they the culmination of longer-term tensions resulting from several decades of social and economic modernisation, while the tsars tried to cling onto their power?

In this centenary year historians around the world are continuing to debate the causes and significance of the Russian Revolutions. In the post-Soviet Russian Federation, however, commemorations are muted since the Russian government, perhaps understandably, has mixed attitudes to the events of 1917. (See ‘Revolution? What Revolution?’ Russia Asks 100 Years Later’, The New York Times, 10 March 2017, by Neil MacFarquhar).

Nevertheless, the head of the Russian TV channel ‘Rain’ has set up the Project 1917 website that uses contemporary letters, diaries, memoirs and other sources to give us an immediate sense of the unfolding drama of the revolutions.

In Britain the Royal Academy of Arts in London is hosting a major exhibition that ‘explores one of the most momentous periods in modern world history through the lens of [Russia’s] groundbreaking art.’

Russia’s revolutionary history can be explored through the resources held in the University Library.  You can find books on the revolution and the Tsar, as well as a collection covering art in the early years of the Soviet Union. Many of the artists featured in the Royal Academy’s exhibition are well represented in the Library’s holdings.

Along with books on the history of the Russian Revolution, the University Library also has a range of DVDs and books on the celebrated Russian director, Sergei Eisenstein.  Eisenstein directed the 1928 silent film October, a dramatisation of the 1917 October revolution.

An original film poster that was released in 1928 and designed
by V. Stenberg, G. Stenberg, Y. Ruklevsky via: Wikipedia

To find material on any of the subjects mentioned, search YorSearch, our Library catalogue.

Friday, 24 February 2017

Velocity Conference Amsterdam

John Cooper reviews the Velocity conference

At the end of last year I attended the Velocity conference in Amsterdam. It was paid for by UCISA as part of their bursary scheme. So, many thanks to them for having the foresight to see the benefit of these types of events.

Velocity is a conference focused around Web Application development and performance. It deals with all aspects of producing fast and efficient web applications. It has a wide audience (in a narrow field if that makes sense). I talked to front end web developers, business app producers and traditional operations folks, from companies large and small.

There seemed to be three main threads to the talks. Technical operations performance, such as server setups, monitoring and configuration. Application level changes, such as progressive web apps and image optimisation. And finally, the softer side of being part of one of those teams, such as diversity in your team, project based teamwork or team motivation. A lot of the talks crossed some of these areas but it felt to me they were the broad sections.

I'm not going to talk much about specific talks here but will try and summarise what I thought where the sub topics.

Progressive web apps

They are everywhere. Nearly all the talks mentioned them in some fashion. It seems these are going to become more and more important over the coming years. While at their most basic they let you scale your website to fit on many device types they are starting to add a lot more to apps in general. There is support for notifications and adding the "app" to the desktop or application menus in the browsers. This means that you can create what feels like a native application using web technologies. We are already seeing people ship applications that are nothing more than a thin wrapper around a web rendering engine. You should be looking at these now. Even if you are not using all the features that they suggest you can already be taking advantage of the boost in performance you get and helping future proof you a bit.


There where a few talks about http/2 the new version of the standard that drives the web. http/2 is out there and supported by all modern browsers now. Talks varied from the W3C proposing new additions to improve performance to people writing servers and studying how browsers interact with http/2. While some of the newer and deeper technical details where overkill for general use it's still good to know how these things work under the hood. Like how a web browser will load as far as the end of the head section in a web page and then build a download map for what to do next. It might switch to download the images and stylesheets first then the rest of the page. You page, site and server can help the browser with these decisions by providing maps and hints. Push is a part of http/2. The server can push some things that it thinks the browser might need next. This leads to servers pushing things that the browser already has cached. So now there is a cache digest that the client can send with the first request so the server knows what the client has cached. While browser support is patchy there is a cacher-digest.js script to fall back on. The upcoming QUIC protocol based on UDP seems interesting as it cuts out a lot of the round trip time (RTT) for a packet to get to a client. These can all add up so by doing more things asynchronously the overall speed can be improved. There are lots of changes in http/2 some of which are easy to get the benefit from and others will only become obvious as app frameworks adapt to these new paradigms. In the meantime it looks like it's about time to turn it on.

Team diversity and development

There where quite a lot of talks about the soft side of the craft. One of the keynotes was themed on how a diverse team is a more productive team and hiring in your own image ends up creating a team that is fixed in its ways. Other talks where about how teams have scaled, switching to smaller mixed teams with cross group knowledge sharing. I think my favourite one though came from a member of the wellness team (what your enterprise might call HR) for the German company who talked about their review process and how that works when you don't have any managers. They essentially get people to volunteer to be reviewers, select the good ones, and then everybody gets to pick who does their review. The opening talk, Word Done vs Work as Imagined, touched on many things but a couple that stood out where about setting metrics and automated alerts vs an human skill and experience. On the first point they used the fact that too many alarms went off on a flight and the pilots had to ignore them and fly using experience. This maybe true to some extent in this instance but it also might point to bad alerting interface. I would recommend that you read The Checklist Manifesto by Atul Gawande at some point though for an interesting looks at how sometimes human instincts need some backup. Next up was the measurement, reward and punishment of workers using metrics a firm favourite of the UK Government. I think it still bears repeating that you get out only what the metrics are requiring of people so be careful. If you set a four hour minimum to be seen in A&E then staff, even good ones like doctors and nurses, will bend and break all the other rules to achieve that. Systems are invented to meet the target even if that is a worse way of doing things.

Containers and system reliability

Containers have moved on and are no longer a big topic at conferences I think. I don't know where they are on the hype curve but it seems that the assumption with a lot of the talks was that you where already running them. Topics like Immutable Infrastructure and even Serverless did get a mention now and again. It feels like the technology stack has shifted slightly again. People are concerned with Docker Swarm or Kubernetes for managing applications rather than managing servers specifically. It seems assumed that you will be running on some sort of "cloud" where groups of "servers" come and go. Now we are looking at how to make systems tolerate failure rather than be 100% reliable. Gone are the Dual power supplies and redundant networking being replaced with autosizing clouds and redundant cloud suppliers. Fun times.


Metrics are key to any sort of modern development. They give insight into what is working and what is not. They let you test changes and make sure they are not breaking things in subtle ways. Gathering and processing metrics is hard. We can very simply monitor systems and times but figuring out what is important or what an issue looks like is more tricky. It does not seem that long ago that the #monitoringsucks hashtag was all the rage, closely followed by the slightly more positive #monitoringlove one. At the time Nagios and Cacti where the tool and we struggled to make use of them where we could. Now it feels we are spoilt for choice. There seemed to be two main themes to the talks those talking about how to gather the statistics and those dealing with interpreting them. On the gathering side probably the most interesting for me was the description of the close integration of Kubernetes and Prometheus. These two tools seem to be the very hot at the moment and are starting to change the way we think about our infrastructure. Completing the move from snowflake servers that we nurture and run applications on to 'pods' that house applications that we run on clusters. With this shift in complexity we need new tools to manage this. Kubernetes handles the running and scaling of the applications themselves while Prometheus gives us the eyes into the system. The other side of metrics is interpreting them. I think my favourite talk here was 'How the users see the data'. It gave a whistle stop tour of how to display metrics. A lot of it based on the work of William S Cleveland and his Graphical Perception paper Showing how people read graphs and giving advice on how to display data to get the most meaning. Some examples included "Stacked anything is nearly always a mistake as are pie charts. Use two charts or only show the important data". Or that there is a scale on which people are better are interpreting data that goes from Position on a common scale to shading. So we are much better at recognising values and difference on a scale than we are say angles or direction. There is a lot more to it than that but I feel I learned a lot there. Anomaly detection was also a theme that cropped up, people have differing opinions on what works and what does not but when you are starting to gather large groups of statics. I attended the tutorial on the last day about using some basic AI and stats in python to spot anomalies in your data even if its not regular. While it was interesting it did feel like it needed a lot of manual work to get the best results so you might need to focus on just a few important metrics.

Continuous Security

The concept of Continuous Delivery is well established in the DevOps world. Keeping the software always deploy-able at all times. Security on the other hand is much more of a mixed bag. The tag DevOpsSecBiz was proposed and while the name will probably not take off it does point to a different approach. First things first you have to get a commitment from the project sponsor or manager that security is important. Then you can start to apply all the techniques that you learned from DevOps to add in security. Sit your teams together, all working towards the same goal including security. Don't make it a "security team" problem that you tack on at the end. Start the project with threat modelling, get your developers to buy into this. Then automate the tests, add them to the infrastructure. Start adding tests to your code for security, unit tests that reflect your goals. Start running checkers for bad code smells and practices in the builds. Add in automatic scanners in test and production. Code reviews, OWASP ASVS is a good starting point. I think one of the final points of the talks was interesting a focus on the security team not being off somewhere "handling security" and probing and testing but being part of the teams improving process and culture.


The final day was tutorials. This was a mixed bag. I chose to do a mixture of topics so I would get a taster of each. It was great to learn about optimising images for the web lots of good things in that one. Getting to explore the basic data science allowed me to think about some of the talks from the previous couple of days. The first tutorial was a programming one using eBPF, which is a low level kernel task that is really powerful. I could have spent most of the day playing with that but it seems to be at odds with the worlds of containers and disposable infrastructure. It does highlight how the split is forming, there seem to be now companies that provide large infrastructure and have the need to dig that deep and a move for most companies to consume those container or even functions hosting services. I do wonder how long my role as a generic systems administrator will exist. Where should I aim for next?


The conference felt very large and quite anonymous. I managed to speak to quite a few people over lunch and I think things like the birds of a feather (BOF) tables at lunch helped open people up a bit. As ever with techy conferences though I think this can be an awkward time for a lot of people. It felt a shame that there was not something on after the event. People stood around chatting to their peers or the vendors for a while then went off. I have been to other conferences where that time seems better spent in a group. (Having said that by day three I was shattered!) The packed schedule gave little time to thinking, which may seem weird but as I read through the notes I managed to scratch out in between sessions it seems I could have done with some more time to digest some of this. Not sure there is a sensible solution to that one though.

Friday, 10 February 2017

Using Google Q&A in large teaching sessions

Martin Philip, Academic Liaison Librarian, offers tips on using Google Q&A to add interest and interaction to your teaching presentations

Shared from the Lib-Innovation blog.

I've always been a default Microsoft PowerPoint user, however Google's recently added Q&A feature to their Slides product may have persuaded me otherwise.

PowerPoint still seems to be the most ubiquitous piece of presentation software. It's certainly the one programme that I've spent most of my student and professional life using and the one I'm most comfortable creating slides with.

Nowadays, however, there are many presentation programmes to choose from; Google Slides, Apple's Keynote, Prezi, Canva to name a few. They all essentially do the same thing which is to present your topic and/or ideas, using, texts, graphics, photos and video.

Read more of this post at: Lib-Innovation: Using Google Q&A in large teaching sessions